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Esophageal Pathology

  • Although pathologies affecting the esophagus are diverse they tend to produce a limited set of clinical consequences. Obstruction, narrowing, or functional immobilization of the esophagus tends to produce dysphagia. Food regurgitation into the esophagus, especially because of concomitant regurgitation of stomach acid, results in the sensation of heartburn. Finally, upper GI bleeding due to ulceration or laceration of the esophageal mucosa or rupture of esophageal varices results in the clinical signs of hematemesis or, if bleeding is brisk, melena.