Error message

Deprecated function: The each() function is deprecated. This message will be suppressed on further calls in book_prev() (line 775 of /home/pathwa23/public_html/modules/book/book.module).


  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a highly potent cytokine largely secreted by Macrophages which have encountered microbe. This cytokine produces a wide variety of pro-inflammatory effects locally as well as systemically. Locally, this cytokine enhances recruitment of immune effector cells to sites of inflammation. Systemically, this cytokine can induce fever and can modify host metabolism which when secreted over long time-scales can result in cachexia.