- Disorders of the thyroid gland essentially fall into two basic categories: Endocrine and Neoplastic. Endocrine disease lead to dysregulated levels of thyroid hormones, termed hyperthyroidism (excess hormone) or hypothyroidism (insufficient hormone). neoplastic disease of the thyroid is generally uncommon but can range from harmless adenomas to highly aggressive carcinomas.
- As mentioned, this category of diseases leads to either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, meaning excess or insufficient systemic levels of thyroid hormones, respectively. Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism are in reality clinical syndromes which can be caused by a variety of etiopathogenic processes. We first discuss the clinical syndromes of hyper- and hypothyroidism and then mention common etiologies of each.