- Sialadenitis refers to inflammation of the salivary glands and can be caused by a number of distinct etiologies. Microbial etiologies include infection with Mumps Virus or pyogenic bacteria. Physical obstruction of salivary gland ducts with particulate matter, known as "Sialolithiasis", can significantly increase the probability of a secondary bacterial infection and thus inflammation. Additionally, severe dehydration can result in retrograde movement of fluid and bacteria into the salivary gland resulting in infection. Autoimmune diseases such as Sjogren Syndrome can also induce non-microbial inflammation.