- Nephrocalcinosis is a renal pathology that occasionally occurs in the context of chronic hypercalcemia.
- The pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis can be thought of as occurring in two basic stages. Initially, high levels of renally filtered calcium cause functional derangement of tubular epithelial cells and may lead to deficiencies in tubular function such as the capacity to concentrate urine. With time, deposition of calcium in tubular epithelial cells leads to their destruction and sloughing into the tubular lumen which obstructs flow of tubular fluid. The end result of these processes is patchy atrophy and calcification of the renal parenchyma.
- Over time, nephrocalcinosis causes a decline in renal function. Frequently, development of calcium renal and urinary tract stones is often co-morbid with nephrocalcinosis.