• Epiglottitis refers to Inflammation of the epiglottis and is usually due to bacterial infections. The primary pathogen is Haemophilus influenzae with occasional cases due to Streptococcus pyogenes. Rapid inflammation of the epiglottis and larynx can ensue with the most feared consequence being obstruction of the proximal airways and thus death. On exam the epiglottis may look 'cherry-red'.