Enterococci

Categorization
Cell Wall: Gram Positive Shape: Cocci
Biochemistry: Catalase Negative Metabolism: Microaerophilic
Streptococcal subclassification: Group D, alpha-hemolytic
Overview
  • Enterococci are a grouping of multiple Streptococcal species which share the Group D lancefield antigen and result in similar clinical consequences.
Clinical Consequences
  • Overview
    • In healthy individuals Enterococci are a normal part of the GI flora. They only cause disease in fairly ill patients (i.e. Hospitalized patients) or in those treated with antibiotics whose normal flora may be deranged.
  • Possible pathologies
    • Heart Valves: Enterococci infection can cause infective endocarditis and usually manifests as the 'subacute' subtype of infective endocarditis
    • Biliary Tree: Enterococci are frequent causes of infectious cholangitis and can go on to cause liver abscess
    • UTI: Urinary Tract Infections are possible, especially in those with foley catheters or receiving antibiotics for another issue
Treatment
  • Enterococci are notable for their resistance to most antibiotics. Normally treated with ampicillin + aminoglycosides but if organisms are resistant then vancomycin may be used. However, Vancomycin-resistant enterococci have developed and the resistance gene may be transferable. These infections can be treated with linezolid.