Congenital Heart Disease
- Congenital Heart Diseases represent the most common type of congenital defects and occur in nearly 1% of all newborns. Defects result in a wide range of hemodynamic consequences and can manifest immediately after birth or not become apparent until adulthood. An understanding of heart development and the fetal circulation would surely aid in learning of the various possible congenital heart diseases; however, a comprehensive discussion of cardiac development is currently beyond the scope of this work.
- Congenital heart defects can be categorized as "Cyanotic" or "Acyanotic" in reference to the level of oxygenation apparent in the fetal blood. In general, cyanotic defects are caused by the presence of significant right-left shunts of blood, allowing oxygen-poor blood from the right heart to enter that of the left heart. Acyanotic defects can be caused by left-right shunts of blood, allowing oxygenated blood from the left heart to enter that of the right heart. Additionally, acyanotic defects can also be caused by simple obstruction of left ventricular outflow.
- Cyanotic Defects
- Acyantoic Defects